Influential Computer Programming Languages
A computer programming language is a medium through which a problem is broken down into its component parts that are then placed into an ordered list of instructions for a computer to execute. Ada Lovelace, a 19th-century English mathematician, is often called the first computer programmer. Lovelace realized that the Analytical Engine, a mechanical computer that was proposed by English mathematician Charles Babbage, could be used to perform a sequence of operations. She didn’t use a programming language, however. One could say that her first program was written in machine language, the direct actions that the machine would have to perform. In most modern programming, a program is written at some distance from the actual electronic operations the computer has to do.
Beginning in 1936, German engineer Konrad Zuse built a series of computers that were the first to use binary. Zuse began thinking about how to have his computers perform problems. He devised Plankalkül, which has been called the first complete high-level programming language—that is, a language that is not dependent on the type of computer. Unlike assembly language电竞竞猜, high-level programming languages exist at a remove from the language that the machine is actually using to execute the program. Plankalkül had the unusual feature that its variables were described in a two-dimensional table. Zuse never executed Plankalkül on his computers. It was not until 1998 that the first Plankalkül programs were actually run.
In 1954 IBM introduced the 704 computer, which was designed for scientific projects. John Backus, a mathematician at IBM, realized that a new language was needed that would be both fast and more like mathematics than assembly language. After three years of work, Backus and his team introduced FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation). FORTRAN had several features that made it an immediate success. It came with a manual, the first programming language to do so. It also allowed comments in the program—that is, lines in the code that were not commands to be executed but that could contain annotations about what the program did, making it easier for someone else to use the same program. FORTRAN went through many subsequent versions and became the premier programming language for science.
Like FORTRAN, ALGOL was an algorithmic language—that is, a language designed to do mathematical computations. A collaboration of computer scientists in Europe and America felt that an algorithmic language was needed that would be machine-independent—unlike FORTRAN, which then ran only on IBM machines. The result was the International Algebraic Language, later called ALGOL 58. However, it was the second version of ALGOL, ALGOL 60, that contained many innovations used in subsequent programming languages. Backus and Danish programmer Peter Naur came up with a grammar for ALGOL 60 called Backus-Naur Form that came to underlie many later languages. ALGOL also allowed recursive procedures, in which a procedure could call itself. Another innovation was block structure, in which a program could be made of smaller pieces that could be structured like an entire program. ALGOL was a very influential language—as were its descendants, C and Pascal.
While FORTRAN and ALGOL were used by scientists and mathematicians, in 1959 Mary Hawes, a computer programmer at the Burroughs Corporation, identified the need for a programming language designed for businesses that could do such things as monthly payrolls and record inventory. The U.S. Department of Defense was asked to sponsor a conference that would develop such a language. The result was COBOL, COmmon Business-Oriented Language, introduced in 1960. COBOL was designed to be written more like the English language than FORTRAN and ALGOL. It had a record data structure in which data of different types (such as a customer’s name, address, phone number, and age) were clustered together. COBOL became widespread through businesses and government, and it has had an astonishingly long life for a language developed in the early 1960s. Much of the Y2K crisis involved code written in COBOL, and in 2017 it was estimated that 95 percent of card transactions at ATMs still used the language.
John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz, two math professors at Dartmouth College, were convinced that undergraduate students should learn how to program computers but that FORTRAN and ALGOL were too complex. Kemeny and Kurtz wanted a language that would allow a student to write a working program right away. They also devised a time-sharing system in which several people could use terminals to run programs simultaneously on a central computer. The language they devised, Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC), was extremely simple; the first version had only 14 commands. BASIC was quickly adopted throughout Dartmouth. BASIC’s popularity exploded with the advent of the personal computer, which typically included the language. For many young people who first encountered computers in the late 1970s and early ’80s, BASIC was their first language.
C was created at Bell Laboratories and evolved over several years. Bell Labs, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and General Electric collaborated on Multics, a project to create an operating system for a time-sharing computer. At Bell Labs the Multics project was seen as too complex to ever be successful, and so that company withdrew from the project in 1969. However, from the ruins of Multics came Unix. For Unix, programmer Ken Thompson created a stripped-down programming language called B. However, B did not distinguish between different types of data, such as integer numbers and characters. In 1971 Dennis Ritchie added a character type to B and created a new language that he briefly called “new B” and later called C. By the time C was basically finished in 1972, the language was so powerful and flexible that much of the UNIX operating system was written in it. One of C’s descendants, C++, has become one of the world’s most widely used programming languages.